PIE *ĝenu-
Gloss: ‘chin, jaw(-bone)’ (item 17 in Bjørn 2017)

Toch. A śanwe-ṃ (du.); OIr. gin; Goth. kinnus; Gr. γένυς; Phr. α-ζήν ‘beard’; Ved. hanu-, Av. zanva (acc. du.).

Notes: The problematic velar reflexes in Indo-Iranian formally require *ĝh, which has been proposed as “Homoionymenflucht”, i.e. dissimilation from *ĝonu- ‘knee’ (item 20) with which it was colliding in the Indo-Iranian vowel collapse of *e and *o to a (Mayrhofer 1996: 801f.), although *-o- in ‘knee’ is lengthened due to the effects of Brugmann’s Law.

External comparanda:
NE Caucasian: *č̣ănV ‘chin’ (NCED s.v.)

S. Starostin makes no distinction as to the stage of transfer (2009: 85), but the palatal development of an inherited plain velar in front of a front vowel is a strong argument in favor of a dialectal loan from a stage of Indo-Iranian into NE  Caucasian (Dolgopolsky 1987: 19), and, if the vowel reconstructed by Nikolayev & Starostin is to be preferred to Dolgopolsky’s cover symbol, the vocalism helps substantiate a loan with the hallmark traits of Indo-Iranian (§

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PhD stud. at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (Jena) MA in Indo-European Studies (2017) from the University of Copenhagen. Graduated with the thesis "Foreign elements in the Proto-Indo-European Vocabulary" that forms the basis of my blog. Particular fields of interest are the formation and dissolution of PIE with reference to Uralic and Caucasian languages.

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