PIE *(l)iekw -r
Gloss: ‘liver’ (item 65 in Bjørn 2017)

Lat. iecur; Middle Irish i(u)chair ‘fishroe’; (?)ON lifr; Latv. aknas (pl.f.); Gr. ἧπαρ; (?)Arm. leard; Ved. yaknás (gen.), YAv. yakarə-.

Notes: Aberrant forms in Armenian and Germanic with initial *l– have been suggested as stemming from internal analogies (cf. Martirosyan 2008: 267f. and Kroonen 2013: 336). Heterocliticon points, grammatically, to the very oldest strata of PIE, although attestations are wanting for both Anatolian and Tocharian.

External comparanda:
NE Caucasian: *läHäƛwV > e.g. Andian reƛiƛ̱i

Otherwise formally unattractive, S. Starostin does suggest that the East Caucasian form betrays the archaic nature of the initial consonant in Germanic and Armenian (2009: 83f.), conceivably continuing a borrowed palatalized *l– that was lost in the glide elsewhere. Chronologically a reconstruction through to North Caucasian form would strengthen its case, but all things considered this connection remains meagre.

Published by


MA in Indo-European Studies (2017) from the University of Copenhagen. Graduated with the thesis "Foreign elements in the Proto-Indo-European Vocabulary" that forms the basis of my blog. Particular fields of interest are the formation and dissolution of PIE with reference to Uralic and Caucasian languages.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *