Gloss: ‘apple’ (item 42 in Bjørn 2017)
Attestations: (?)Osc. Abella (toponym); OIr. ubull; ON epli; Lith. obuolỹs; OCS (j)ablŭko; (?)Thr. dinopula, synopula; (?)Pashaei wālī, (?)Kashmiri ambari-trel ‘small kind of a.’, (?)Pashto maṇá
Notes: The Thracian forms may well be connected as literal ‘dog-apple’, a perfect cognate of Lithuanian šun-obuolỹs (Markey 1988: 51), but there is no evidence for a PIE term (ibid. passim.). An Indo-Iranian strain may be included, but requires some irregular developments to fit with the European stock (Mallory & Adams 1997: 25), especially if the more erratic Iranian strain continuing *marnā– (Morgenstierne 1927: 45) is heeded. Here, like elsewhere, the reconstruction of *h2e– rather than *a– is based on assumptions of PIE that were evidently resolved by the ultimate dispersal of the dialect continuum. [Note: See also Kroonen 2016 and Fenwick 2016 for the root *smh2l-]
Uralic: Fenno-Volgaic *omɜrɜ or*omena
Discussion: Apples were only domesticated in the 1st millennium BC (Zohary 1990:39), and the item is a clear Wanderwort and traces its entrance to a handful of IE languages long after the dissolution of PIE (Campbell 1990: 163f., cf. also S. Starostin 2009: 93f.).
[Add. See Vennemann 2003: 466-468 for an Atlantic (~Semitic) origin ultimately related to PSem. *ˀabal- ‘genitals’]
[Add: Disregarding the Iranian forms, Wodtko et al. al but rejects the wanderwort hypothesis with reference to a widespread hysterokinetic paradigm unlikely to have been adopted independently in three our four IE branches (2008: 264 fn.1)]